Emrah Yaman / The Turkish Minority in Changing Bulgaria

The Turkish Minority in Changing Bulgaria

Since Bulgaria's independence in 1878, thousands of Turks have migrated back to Turkey. The remaining Turkish community has suffered growing discrimination and resentment by the Bulgarian population.

During the Communist rule in Bulgaria, the Turkish minority, with their "outdated" religious customs, were considered an obstacle to a modern industrialized society. From 1984 to 1989, the Communist government carried out a bitter persecution program against the Turk, forcing them to take Bulgarian names, destroying Muslim sections in cemeteries, and forbidding Islamic religious practices. At the height of the persecution in 1989, an additional 350,000 Turks fled to Turkey. Since the collapse of Communism in 1990, the Turks have enjoyed greater freedom and the Muslim community has returned to some of its old customs. The national Turkish minority in Bulgaria have reclaimed most of their cultural and civil rights without the armed conflict that characterizes the relationship between ethnic groups in many multi-ethnic states, especially those in formerly Communist societies. The international integration, particularly within the context of the EU, is important for ensuring that the state and minority can interact peacefully and productively in Bulgaria. The consistent involvement of international institutions in improving ethnic relations has directly assisted the democratization process, helped to move Bulgaria toward observance of accepted international standards, and to improve the state-minority relations.
 
Degisen Bulgaristan'daki Türk Azinlik

Bulgaristan'in 1878'deki bagimsizligindan beri binlerce Türk Türkiye'ye göç etti. Geride kalan Türk toplulugu Bulgarlarin artan kin ve ayrimciligina maruz kalmistir.

Komünist dönem boyunca sözde modasi geçmis dini gelenekleriyle birlikte Türk azinlik modern sanayi toplumuna bir engel olarak degerlendirildi. 1984'den 1989'a kadar komünist hükümet Türklerin zorla Bulgar isimleri almasini saglayarak, Müslüman mezarlarina zarar vererek ve islam dinin uygulanmasini yasaklayarak aci bir zulme giristi. Zulmün doruga vardigi 1989 yilinda toplam 350,000 Türk Türkiye'ye göç etti.

Komünizmin 1990'da yikilmasindan beri genis özgürlüklere sahip Türkler Islami geleneklerini de tekrar uygulamaya basladilar. Bulgaristan'daki ulusal Türk azinlik birçok etnik grubun oldugu devletlerdeki özellikle önceki komünist toplumlardaki etnik iliskileri tasvir eden silahli çatismaya girismeden kültürel ve sivil haklarini çogunu elde ettiler. Uluslararasi bütünlesme özellikle Avrupa Birligi baglamindaki bütünlesme Bulgaristan'daki söz konusu barisçi ve verimli devlet azinlik etkilesimini saglayabilmesinde önemliydi. Etnik iliskilerin gelistirilmesinde uluslararasi kurumlara tutarli baglilik, Bulgaristan'daki demokratiklesme sürecine, uluslararasi standartlari kabul etmesine ve devlet azinlik iliskilerinin ilerlemesine yardim etmistir.