Dilek İnci Caner / Ankara as the Capital of Turkey: Its Planning and Development in Early Republican Period

Ankara as the Capital of Turkey: Its Planning and Development in Early Republican Period

Atatürk's dream has been realized; his Ankara has been transformed from a naked plateau into a modern city through the efforts and belief of Turkish People. The process which led to Ankara becoming the capital began when Mustafa Kemal made his came from occupied Istanbul to the Black Sea port of Samsun to organize the resistance movement. With the convention of the National Congress in Sivas, Mustafa Kemal and his colleagues took over the country's government, leaving Ýstanbul as the capital in nothing but name. After the final victory, Ankara became capital and the symbol of the new Turkey on October 13, 1923.

The symbol of the new Turkey was to be improved immediately and become a modern capital. The modern city was given a general north to south orientation, starting from the limits of the old city and leading across the plain along the main avenue, Gazi Bulvarý, passing through the most recent quarters of Yeniþehir, and ending halfway up Çankaya.
Two stages can be distinguished in the architecture of the city. The first, in which the neo-Turkish style predominates, is exemplified by the building of the Grand National assembly, designed by Vedat Tek, while the second stage is dominated by modern architecture as used in Europe and North America, with sober lines and smooth surfaces with emphasis on ventilation and comfort. The government quarter, bank buildings, and presidential place were all built in this latter style.

Ankara's city plan was drawn by German Prof. Herman Jansen in 1928, with kilometers of faultless streets, proud buildings, a stadium, airport, schools and institutes, and later all these created by people's effort, without the help of foreign capital.

This study seeks to present a comprehensive study of the evolution of Ankara from the National Struggle days to 1939 when Jansen's job came to an end.

(Approved by Dr. Nevin Cosar, Dr. Lütfullah Karaman, Dr. Günhan Danisman)